Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics 1922 “for his services to theoretical physics, particularly for his exploration of the law of the photoelectric effect.”
This is a reference to his 1905 paper “On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light,” which was well supported by experimental evidence at the time.
The keynote speech began by mentioning “his theory of relativity, which has been the topic of robust discussion in philosophical circles [and] has also astrophysical implications that are currently being rigorously examined.” (1923, Einstein)
According to legend, Einstein gave the Nobel Prize money to his first wife, Mileva Mari, in accordance with their 1919 divorce settlement. However, private communications made public in 2006 reveals that he invested a large portion of it in the United States and saw a large portion of it destroyed during the Great Depression.
In the case of Albert Einstein, his Nobel Prize in 1921 was given primarily for his elaboration of the photoelectric effect, rather than for his work on relativity.
Albert Einstein: in 1921, for his contributions to theoretical physics, particularly for discovering the law of the photoelectric effect.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences bestows the Nobel Prize in Physics once a year. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded in 1901; the others are the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, a German, “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays).”
This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and is widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics. It is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death.