When 2021 began, it seemed that it might provide some solution to the three major cataclysms that defined 2020. President Trump’s turmoil should give way to a much more traditional president who promised to return to normal. Joe Biden has promised to fight Covid 19 more aggressively, and the introduction of a safe and effective vaccine has raised expectations that the world will leave the pandemic in 2021 and be resolved soon. The change will occur.
But at all three points, 2021 brought more confusion and uncertainty, not normality or dissolution. It began with the January 6th Capitol riot and Trump’s second impeachment, and the Republicans, led by the former president himself, continued all year round to spread the lie that Donald Trump had won the election correctly. Rice field. Covid19 continues to spread to hotspots in the country and around the world, and the emergence of two powerful variants has revealed that the disease remains a permanent part of everyday life. And divisive events such as the emerging economies of “critical race theory” as a political focus and the Kyle Rittenhouse trial suggest that the country is farther from the consensus on racial justice than last year. Did.
How does history remember 2021? POLITICO Magazine has asked 18 historians to imagine this year’s entry in a fictional future storybook. Not surprisingly, many have emphasized the erosion of US democratic norms, primarily through ongoing attempts to question and overturn legitimate election outcomes. Many submissions focused on the downstream impact of the pandemic, such as labor market changes and educational turmoil. We heard about racial inequality: continued systematic racism against black Americans increased violence against Asian Americans and the country’s polarization along racial lines. The general feeling. Other contributors said that 2021 missed yet another opportunity to tackle the climate crisis than the year the United States ended the 20-year war in Afghanistan or the post-World War democratic order. I believed it would be remembered as a turning point in concerns about the US position at the forefront of the United States. II. According to experts, this is what future historians will write this year. 44 The global leadership of the United States in the 4th century was shaken
Mark Mazower is a professor of history at Columbia University, Ira D. Wallach.
American national technology created the system and norms of liberal internationalism in the last century-stopped before World War II and more resolutely thereafter. The events of 2021 showed that this era was nearing its end. A right-wing coup attempt earlier this year has hurt the country’s reputation. Second, the Republicans refused to confront the principal. The collapse of moderate conservatism in the United States is significantly compared to that of Germany, where Chancellor Angela Merkel resigned during the year. After taking her power for 16 years, she made her country the de facto leader in unified Europe, the world’s largest democratic block. She was 67 years old and retired more than 10 years younger than President Joe Biden at the beginning of her tenure. She was also, frankly, the first female head of state in the country. Germany seemed to have learned from the past, led by a talented, diverse, and relatively young political class. In contrast, the United States left 2021 as a problematic regime. He was terribly polarized, spending a lot of money on undeployed troops, and faced the prospect of a judicial counter-revolution from the colonel court of radicals. Did the Biden administration reaffirm America’s global leadership role by convening a democratic year-end summit, or did it complain about its withdrawal? A video wall showing attendees of the
White House Summit for Democracy stands in the South Court Auditorium in Washington, DC on December 9, 2021. According to the State Department, the virtual summit will bring together 100 leaders from government, civil society, and the private sector to “create a positive agenda for democracy reform and make democracy the greatest threat it faces today. We will cooperate to work on it. “ ;
Participants in the White House Summit for Democracy will appear on the Washington Video Wall on December 9, 2021. | Chip Somodevilla / Getty Images
Joe Biden shows that government could be the solution
Meg Jacobs teaches history and public relations at Princeton University and is the author of “Pump Panic: The Energy Crisis and the Transformation of American Politics” in the 1970s.
The year the Reagan Revolution ended-this is how 2021 is remembered. With that $ 1 trillion spendings, the Biden administration defeated the Reagan era’s belief that the government was a problem, not a solution. From Covid19’s aid to the federal government’s largest single investment, large-scale infrastructure legislation, Biden’s legislative services competed with the New Deal’s legislative services. The global economic crisis of 2021 was Covid’s pandemic. Biden then revealed his understanding of the importance of government in the crisis. Early on he promised, “gunshots, put money in his pocket.” Was his execution perfect? No. But neither was Franklin Roosevelt’s. The FDR took several years before the Works Progress Administration went live, and the unemployment rate did not return to pre-1929 levels for years. The New Deal was a fundamental change in American politics that completely buried the laissez-faire approach. Biden’s turning point came after generations of moments of outlawing and intense polarization of government efficiency. As a result, it wasn’t as bold and bold as Roosevelt’s success, but at the time it was necessary to take a page from the FDR playbook and start hitting “Build Back Better” on every construction project to get praise. Some argued that there was. Radio waves and social media.
Yet, in the long run, 2021 may have been a year in which the government survived a 100-year pandemic, saved the economy, and led the world to a more resilient and more environmentally friendly future. We “reward work, not wealth.”
Goodbye, eternal war. Hello, eternal pandemic
John Ghazvinian is a Managing Director of the University of Pennsylvania’s Middle East Center and author of America and Iran: A History, 1720 to the Present.
2021 was the year when President George W. Bush’s “war on terrorism”, which began with fuss and optimism in 2001, finally ended. US troops sent to Afghanistan to “smoke” Osama bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda and the Taliban, and rebuild the country in the image of the United States have never officially acknowledged its defeat. But it was never necessary. Images of a US plane trying to evacuate personnel from Kabul Airport while a desperate Afghanistan is hanging from ailerons left little doubt in the list of results. In a sense, the United States did just that, after years of continuous warning of “not letting terrorists win.” Universally despised in 2001, the Taliban has been working hard for 20 years, firmly on the crosshairs of the most powerful army ever known in the world. When the intruder turned his back, it took only a week to conquer the country. It has been the most shameful and visible defeat for American foreign policy since the fall of Saigon in 1975.
In this handout provided by the U.S. Air Force, flight crew members evacuated to a C17 Globemaster III aircraft to assist Afghanistan’s evacuation at Hamid Karzai International Airport in Kabul, Afghanistan on August 21, 2021. I am preparing to carry a person. The US Air Force crew is preparing to load refugees on an aircraft to assist in the evacuation of Afghanistan in Kabul on August 21, 2021. The defeat of the Taylor Kururu / US Air Force
In Afghanistan by Getty Images was a symbol of broader change-less widely recognized, but with more lasting consequences. From Riyadh to Tehran, from Baghdad to Jerusalem, the United States has been largely irrelevant for almost a century with the sun revolving around the constellations of conflict and dissatisfaction in the Middle East. In Washington, politicians touted the Abraham Agreement, signed a year ago by Israel and some pro-US dictatorship Arab governments, as a victory for the benefit of the United States. But arguably more important was the implicit meeting in Iraq in August. There, rivals Saudi Arabia and Iran talked face-to-face to resolve regional differences. For the first time, the United States was not an involved-a spectator of regional initiatives that will become a more serious mechanism for independent leadership by forces in the Middle East in the coming years.
As if to emphasize this, 2021 is the fate of a groundbreaking nuclear deal with Iran after years of dramatic negotiations, abrupt withdrawals, and fruitless renegotiations. It was the year when it was finally sealed. Iran was no longer interested. Tehran has more depressing certainty of U.S. extreme sanctions and the possibility of building a warmer economic relationship between the “resisting economy” and China than a second unpredictable deal Washington could simply withdraw. It was considered preferable. The United States also turned its attention to China and Russia, concluding that these priorities outweigh the costs of further negotiations with Tehran. Little unnoticed, the United States had given up on the Middle East forever. And the feelings were mutual.
But when President Joe Biden thought he would pause or find a moment to deal with a serious internal dysfunction in the United States, he was terribly wrong. The “eternal war” called by the cynics was almost immediately replaced by a new-much more deadly and much more troublesome conflict that would take decades to pursue. The global Covid 19 pandemic, announced in 2020 and naively believed by the world to be defeated within a year by the rapid global vaccine deployment, has been buried in the long run. .. The similarity between the two historical phenomena was impressive. In both cases, the Earth faced elusive, vague, and lasting “enemy”, but as it jumps into the world’s weakest defenses and is ready to demand an unprecedented level of vigilance. I can see it. “Our response involves more than immediate retaliation and individual strikes,” Bush said in 2001. “Americans shouldn’t expect a fight, but it’s a long campaign we’ve never seen before.” He mentioned a sinister network of radical Islamists, His words were easily reused and may have been spoken by Biden in 2021 to explain the microscopic virus and its many mutations. The eternal pandemic was here.
Masha Shatrain is the author of the 2021 Pulitzer Prize-winning “Franchise: The Golden Arch of Black America”.
In the spring of 2021, the media began reporting on “mass layoffs” the year after some US heads of state and government leaders recognized the need for rigorous measures to contain the spread of Covid 19. This phenomenon referred to millions of people who quit their jobs to create better employment opportunities, to launch their own businesses, or to take on the increased duty of care exacerbated by the pandemic. These resignations encouraged new efforts to organize factory strikes and labor, forcing employers to offer higher wages and better social benefits. The Labour market was suffering from changes in the workforce, and there was a national sense of resignation that 2021 would not replace much of the despair of the previous year. This year began with a parliamentary riot and ended with some members of the Republican leadership still denying the damage and scope of violence in the incident. The democratic president could tackle the economic devastation of the Covid crisis by investing in social safety nets for childcare and eliminating students.
Within a year of passionate protests against racist justice, which urged institutions to unite communities across the country and claim to be committed to the anti-racist agenda, racists educated. We have launched a campaign to undermine our honest and complex history. “Critical race theory”. At school. But for those who continue to work for a healthier and fairer future, resignations and resignations do not discourage their important work. Endangered American Experiment
David M. Kennedy is an emeritus professor at Stanford University.
2021 began with a big warning on the bow of American national ships. A swarm of hollowed-out fools, driven by a legitimately defeated President of the United States, attacked the Capitol in a coup attempt to keep the losers in power. But because of all their incendiary anger, they were able to crank the constitutional machine in just six hours. Coup-But that wasn’t the end of the story.
Earlier this year, people suffering from pandemics supported the arrival of an almost miraculous vaccine to protect against the deadly Covid virus that had killed nearly 400,000 Americans by then. Did. But as millions of Americans categorically refused to be vaccinated and mysteriously preferred the possibility of self-immolation over safety and salvation, joy quickly turned into a headache. I gave up.
Two societies, two government systems, two visions of the future. Winning the unspooled 21st century was an unpleasant and urgent question to lie in future laps. Year of learning that education is infrastructure
Claire Bond Potter is a professor of history at New School for Social Research and co-editor of the public seminar.
In 2021, Americans learned that schools are essential to the economic infrastructure of the United States. The US economic infrastructure was poorly prepared and unprepared for the national crisis. Each school (onsite or online) has become both a public health project and a political goal. Board meetings were politicized and angry, and elections for those boards suddenly became hot competition. School authorities, librarians, managers and teachers destroy racial and gender teaching materials as national teachers, students, parents and school managers personally navigate Covid19 logs and online emergency education. Often fueled by political activists, they have been struck by resurrected demands. Sexuality is wiped out of the classroom.
What did Americans learn? They were also expected to be teaching assistants when their parents became remote or key workers. This shows that underfunded schools are an important part of the similarly underfunded and understaffed American childcare system. When students often appeared in classes via mobile phones, the country learned that there was a vast “internet desert” that undermined the ability of millions of Americans to fully participate in society. Many public school students, and perhaps their parents, found that their connection to the educational system was so loose that an estimated 3 million people simply disappeared. By 2020, when exhausted teachers retired or retired in record numbers (Florida, which was hit by both Covid 19 and the Cultural War, job vacancies increased by more than 67%), school staff were also the best. I’m on the front line. .. In 2021, Americans once had the best school system in the world, distorted and destroyed under cultural and public health crises, and it needs systematic reconstruction. I learned that it is an important infrastructure.