The main reason to organize the Ocean Treaty is about two-thirds of the world’s oceans are considered international waters i.e, every country has the right to the international waters but only 1% of the overall world’s oceans are protected.
In 2021, a historic agreement was reached after a decade of talks on a new treaty to protect the biodiversity and ecosystems of the high seas, which are the areas of the world’s oceans beyond national jurisdiction. The agreement was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, and negotiations were led by the Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction (BBNJ).
The treaty, formally known as the “Agreement for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction,” aims to protect marine life, including fish, whales, and other sea creatures, by setting standards for environmental impact assessments, monitoring, and protecting vulnerable marine ecosystems. It also sets out rules for sharing the benefits of marine genetic resources and the transfer of marine technology.
The agreement covers four key areas: marine genetic resources, including sharing benefits and access to these resources; environmental impact assessments; capacity building and marine technology transfer; and the conservation and management of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
The treaty is significant because it represents the first legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. It is also seen as a crucial step in protecting the world’s oceans, which are facing unprecedented threats from climate change, overfishing, and pollution.
The Ocean Treaty and the agreements reached after a decade of talks represent a major milestone in international efforts to protect the health and biodiversity of the world’s oceans.
The main theme of the Ocean Treaty is to protect the Marine ecosystem. It tries to keep 30% of the marine ecosystems under surveillance to protect them. Several Nations had come to an agreement after having 38 hours of talk at the United Nations headquarters in New York to protect the world’s ocean ecosystem.