Nigeria is a country in West Africa that is well-known for its rapidly developing economy and high population density.
Since Nigeria acquired freedom from the English in 1960, it has confronted a blast of difficulties like ethnic struggles, psychological oppression, debasement, and the infringement of essential basic liberties.
The purpose of this essay is to investigate how fundamental human rights like the right to education, freedom of speech, and the right to life are being violated in Nigeria.
Right to Life
International law guarantees every human being the most fundamental human right—the right to life. However, in Nigeria, the right to life is frequently ignored. Between January 2019 and 2020, Basic liberties Watch recorded 36 extrajudicial killings, 64 passing in authority, 10 passing during fights, and 21 killings by non-state entertainers like the Fulani herders. Corruption, a lack of accountability, and the state’s failure to protect its citizens are frequently the causes of these murders.
Numerous Nigerians are unlawfully killed by so-called law enforcement officers on the streets, roads, and other locations. I’ll treat others who are tortured before, after, or during an arrest, or even outside of detention.
Because Nigeria is already known for its corrupt officials, the issue of such killings has been criticized both nationally and internationally. Extrajudicial executions also violate the right to life. According to a report by Amnesty International, the military allegedly executed 34 Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) members extra judicially in Anambra State in July 2020. The right to a fair trial was violated because the executions were carried out without due process.
Terrorism also poses a threat to the right to life. Mass murder, rape, kidnapping, and property destruction are just a few of the atrocities committed by Boko Haram, a terrorist organization based in Nigeria’s northeast. Boko Haram’s terrorist activities have displaced millions of Nigerians and killed tens of thousands of people.
Right to Opportunity of Articulation
One more essential common liberty that is consistently disregarded in Nigeria is the right to opportunity of articulation. This right’s lack of protection has been criticized against the Nigerian government. On the Reporters Without Borders (RSF) World Press Freedom Index, Nigeria actually ranks 120 out of 180 countries, placing it among the worst for press freedom.
The freedom of speech is an essential right in any democratic society, including Nigeria. This right is not only spelled out in the Nigerian constitution, but it is also a basic human right. However, Nigeria’s freedom of speech is still severely restricted despite this recognition.
Nigerian writers frequently face provocation and terrorizing from the public authority and other state establishments for their detailing. As a result of their work, they may also be detained, assaulted, or even murdered.
For instance, in the state of Sokoto in December 2019, an unidentified gunman killed a journalist by the name of Ahmed Isah. Prior to his death, Isah allegedly received death threats for reporting on corruption. His death is just one of many that point to the dangers journalists in Nigeria face.
Through censorship and the application of cybercrime laws to restrict online criticism, the Nigerian government frequently violates the right to freedom of expression. The controversial “Hate Speech Bill,” which criminalizes hate speech and restricts freedom of expression, was introduced by the Nigerian government in 2020. Albeit the bill was removed, it features the public authority’s eagerness to limit free discourse.
Right to Avoid Torture
In Nigeria, the right to avoid torture is frequently violated as well. Torment is unlawful under global common liberties regulation, yet it stays a relentless issue in Nigeria, especially with regards to police and military tasks. According to Amnesty International, Nigeria is actually one of the top five countries with the most allegations of torture.
The Nigerian Government’s utilization of torment has been legitimate, however there is much of the time an absence of responsibility. This is due to the fact that the government frequently fails to investigate allegations of torture and hold those responsible accountable. As a result, police and military operations in Nigeria now frequently involve torture.
Right to Education:
In Nigeria, the right to education is also frequently violated. More than 82% of Nigerians between the ages of 18 and 24 lack formal education, resulting in a high rate of illiteracy. This is generally because of the significant expense of training and the shortage of assets in state funded schools. In point of fact, only 35% of students in Nigerian schools are enrolled in STEM subjects, as documented in a 2019 report from the Nigerian government.
The country’s low education standards are also caused by a lack of investment in education. Students in Nigerian schools often struggle to learn effectively due to a lack of basic infrastructure, such as classrooms, desks, and textbooks.
The government’s poor allocation of resources for education also demonstrates the lack of investment in education. In comparison to the global average of more than 5%, Nigeria’s education sector receives less than 4% of the government’s annual budget.
Right to Freedom of Movement
The right to freedom of movement is another right that is violated in Nigeria. The right to freely leave and enter a country as well as move freely within it is known as freedom of movement. However, insecurity, corruption, and restrictive government policies frequently violate the right to freedom of movement in Nigeria.
In Nigeria, particularly in the north, where the government is fighting the Boko haram insurgency, insecurity is a major concern. As a result, many Nigerians are unable to carry out routine daily activities like farming, trading, or traveling because they are concerned about their safety. In fact, a report from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) states that insecurity has forced nearly 3 million internally displaced Nigerians to live in displacement camps.
In Nigeria, the right to freedom of movement is also harmed by corruption. Nigeria is perhaps of the most bad country on the planet, with an elevated degree of pay off and blackmail among government authorities. It is difficult for Nigerian citizens to travel without being harassed or discriminated against because, for instance, officials frequently demand bribes from commuters at roadblocks.
In Nigeria, restrictions imposed by the government also contribute to violations of the right to freedom of movement. The Public Personality The executives Commission (NIMC) presented the utilization of the Public Character Number (NIN) in 2020, which is expected for admittance to numerous public and confidential administrations like banking, communication, and business. However, Nigerians have found it difficult to move around freely as a result of delays and difficulties in accessing these services since the NIN was implemented.
In Conclusion, violations of fundamental human rights are at an all-time high in Nigeria. Insecurity, corruption, stringent government policies, and a general lack of accountability plague the nation.
These issues should be addressed in the event that Nigeria is to maintain its commitments under worldwide regulation and guarantee the assurance of its residents.
It is the duty of the government to ensure that all Nigerians have access to fundamental human rights like the right to education, freedom of speech, and the right to life. Nigeria can only then progress toward becoming a just and equitable nation.