Meaning of Genocide
Genocide word derived from two words that are ‘Geno’ and ‘Cide’. Geno is a Greek word that means “Race or Tribe” and Cide is a Latin word that means “Killing”. So, Genocide is the act of ‘killing a race or tribe in a particular area or in whole’.
Genocide is an act that is an internationally recognized crime. In genocide, ethnic, religious, or racial groups killing is involved. Genocide is the deliberate killing or murder of a whole community or race. It vanishes the existence of the whole tribe within the area where this crime occurred.
United Nations Genocide Convention and Genocide
United Nations Genocide Convention in 1948 proposes five acts that are considered Genocide. These are –
- The killing of a group member
- Mental or bodily injury to members
- Impose living conditions to destroy the group
- Preventing birth within the group
- Forcefully transfer children of a group to another group
Genocide and Human Rights
Genocide is the crime of killing a group which is ultimately a violation of human rights. The lives of the group are taken away which is a violation of human rights. One of the basic human rights is the Right to Life and liberty, Freedom from torture, and other such rights.
When an individual or a group is being tortured or his life is taken away then he has no freedom to live independently and has no personal liberty. The group always has a fear of losing his life. This is clearly a violation of the Right to life and liberty. When an individual is physically or mentally tortured due to Genocide this is also a violation of Human Rights.
When limitations are imposed on the groups in order to destroy the group and there is no freedom to live the life it is a violation of human rights. As the group no more enjoys the basic human rights that are inherited on then from their birth and are considered to be with them till their last breath.
As we already know, human rights are the rights inherited by an individual, group, or community from birth till the end of life, and if any race or group is not enjoying such rights the purpose of these rights is defeated.
In Genocide, preventing the birth and the forceful transfer of children from one group to another group is also a major concern. No one can force any other person or group to convert to any religious group, this is the violation of human rights.
Forceful conversion is also a type of human rights violation as it involves mental and physical violence to vacate one group and transfer to another group. This snatches the liberty of a group to choose one’s group or stay in the previous group that he or she belongs to.
Birth prevention is also a measure that controls the population of that preferred genocide group. Preventing birth leads to stopping the growing population of that particular group and after a certain time that group ultimately vanishes off.
Genocide and United Nations
United Nations is an international organization established in 1945 with 193 members whose aim is to resolve and prevent conflicts on an international level. Genocide is also an international conflict as it not only covers a particular nation or continent but spread throughout the globe.
Genocide Convention which was adopted in 1948 by the United Nations was the first human rights treaty, officially called the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Through this Convention, genocide is considered a crime.
In 1994, the Tutsi in Rwanda face Genocide which took place in hundred days. This is a major Genocide that occurred in history and thousands of lives were lost during this crime. United Nations also pays tribute to the victims of this crime.
United Nations and its organizations are fighting hard against this evil and trying their best to resolve and prevent such mass destruction and atrocities.
There are a number of genocides occurring throughout the world now but some of the major genocides listed are given below :
- In Third Punic War of Tunisia which happened in 149 BCE is the first listed case of genocide in which a large population of Carthage was killed.
- Moriori Genocide of New Zealand in which 95% of Moriori were killed.
- The Holocaust in Europe is a major case of Genocide, 2/3rd of the Jewish population was killed there.
- Rwanda’s Genocide was also a major case of Genocide in which a large number of Tutsis were killed.
- The latest Genocide that occurred in 2017 was in Myanmar where Rohingyas were killed and a lot fled to other nearby countries.
Genocide is a brutal act of killing someone or a group which is an inhumane act that kills humanity. More Conventions and preventive measures should be taken by the nation as well as international governments and organizations to curb this menace.