What is G20?
The Group of Twenty (G20) is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries – Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States and the European Union.
The G20 members represent around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population.
It was established in 1999 with the goal of enhancing global economic and financial
conditions. Initially, it was a gathering of the minister of finance and the governors of the
central banks, but due to the 2007 economic crisis, it was elevated to a higher level of the
heads of state and governments in 2008 and turned into a premier forum for global economic
It translates to “One Earth, One Family, One Future,” and is the slogan of India’s G20 presidency. It is taken from the Maha Upanishad, an old Sanskrit literature. The topic
essentially emphasizes the importance of all life—human, animal, plant, and
microorganisms—as well as their interdependence on Earth and across the universe.
It does not have a permanent secretariat; instead, it will be located in Sushma Swaraj Bhawan,
15-A, Rizal Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi-110021, during India’s presidency. During
India’s Presidency, the G20 Secretariat is in charge of planning and directing G20 meetings
across the nation.
G20 is a group of 20 developing and developed countries which is made for international
economic cooperation. Its members include India, China, the United States, the United
Kingdom, Germany, France, South Africa, South Korea, Australia, Argentina, Mexico,
Canada, Russia, Italy, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, European Union, Brazil, Indonesia, and Japan.
Each year its presidency is done by the member countries, which this year i.e, 2023 will be
held by India. The previous, current, and future presidents form a group which is known as
the ‘Troika’. The current Troika is made by Indonesia, India, and Brazil respectively. The presidency was handed over to India at the 2022 Bali Summit in Indonesia by the President
of Indonesia Joko Widodo to Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
The first meeting of the G20 summit 2023 was held from 4th to 7th December 2022 in Udaipur,
Rajasthan. Following are the host cities of the G20 Summit: Chandigarh, Amritsar, Gurugram,
Varanasi, Lucknow, Siliguri, Guwahati, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Rann of Kutch, Pune, Indore,
Surat, Gandhinagar, Kolkata, Bhubhaneshwar, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Kochi,
Thiruvananthapuram, Goa, and Khajuraho.
The Following are the guest countries and international organizations invited Bangladesh, UAE, Nigeria, Oman, Singapore, Spain, Mauritius, Netherlands, Spain, Egypt, United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, World Trade Organization (WTO), International Labor Organization (ILO), Financial Stability Board (FSB), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and chairs of regional organizations like the African Union (AU), African Union Development Agency (AUDA), and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
As the G20 President, India will invite ISA (International Solar Alliance), CDRI (
Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure), and ADB (Asian Development Bank) to
participate as Guest IOs.
You can find the whole calendar and the information about events at the official site
www.g20.org. The presidency has come at a crucial time when there are huge geo-political
and geo-economical threats mainly due to the post-pandemic effects and the Russia-Ukraine
conflict. This will also support the already growing strength and clout of India.
Every country during its presidency appoints a Sherpa who oversees negotiations, coordinates
the substantive work, and discusses agendas. India has appointed IAS official Amitabh Kant
as the Sherpa and Harsh V. Shringla is appointed as India’s Chief Coordinator at the secretary